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Stamp Duty Land Tax | Its Thresholds | How to Pay

Updated: Mar 16

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) is a tax levied on the purchase of residential properties or land in England or Northern Ireland that exceed a certain price threshold. This tax is applicable to both freehold and leasehold properties, whether purchased outright or with a mortgage. The tax rates and thresholds for SDLT vary depending on the value of the property, the buyer's circumstances, and whether the property is a primary residence or an additional property.

What is Stamp Duty Land Tax?

SDLT is a tax that buyers might have to pay when they purchase a residential property or a piece of land in England or Northern Ireland over a certain price. The tax is calculated based on the part of the property purchase price falling within each band. The tax applies to both freehold and leasehold properties, whether you're buying outright or with a mortgage.

What is Stamp Duty Land Tax?

Stamp Duty Land Tax Thresholds

In 2024, navigating the landscape of Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) in the UK requires a deep dive into the thresholds, rates, and conditions that apply. This first part of our series will explore the fundamentals of SDLT as they stand in 2024, focusing on the general thresholds for residential properties, including first-time buyers, additional properties, and considerations for non-UK residents.

SDLT Rates for Residential Properties

As of the latest updates, the structure of SDLT for purchasing residential properties in the UK is designed to be progressive, with different portions of the property price falling into specific tax bands. This approach ensures that the tax is levied in a way that considers the value of the property being purchased.

For a single property, the current SDLT rates are structured as follows:

  • No SDLT is charged on properties up to £250,000.

  • For the next £675,000 (from £250,001 to £925,000), a 5% rate applies.

  • A 10% rate is charged on the next £575,000 (from £925,001 to £1.5 million).

  • Any portion above £1.5 million incurs a 12% rate.

This tiered system means that if you purchase a house for £295,000, you pay no SDLT on the first £250,000 and 5% on the remaining £45,000, totaling £2,250 in SDLT.

Special Considerations for First-Time Buyers

First-time buyers in the UK receive a beneficial treatment to make homeownership more accessible. The current policy allows for:

  • No SDLT on properties up to £425,000 for first-time buyers.

  • A 5% rate on the amount from £425,001 to £625,000.

This means that if a first-time buyer purchases a property for £500,000, the SDLT owed would be calculated on the portion above £425,000 at 5%, amounting to £3,750.

SDLT for New Leasehold Sales and Transfers

When acquiring a new residential leasehold property, SDLT is applied to the purchase price of the lease using the standard rates mentioned above. Additionally, if the total rent over the life of the lease exceeds £250,000, a 1% SDLT is charged on the portion over this threshold.

Higher Rates for Additional Properties

Purchasing additional residential properties in the UK typically attracts a 3% surcharge on top of the standard SDLT rates. This includes situations where you're buying a second home or an investment property. However, if you're replacing your main residence and have already sold your previous one, you're exempt from this surcharge.

For those who haven't sold their main residence at the time of a new purchase, and thus own two properties momentarily, the 3% surcharge applies, but a refund can be claimed if the previous main home is sold within 36 months.

Non-UK Residents

Non-UK residents buying residential property in England or Northern Ireland are subject to a 2% surcharge in addition to the standard SDLT rates. The definition of non-residency is based on whether an individual has spent at least 183 days in the UK in the 12 months preceding the purchase.

These foundational aspects of SDLT in 2024 set the stage for a more detailed exploration of specific scenarios, exemptions, and strategies for tax planning within the UK's real estate market. The next part will delve into practical examples, strategies for optimization, and further intricacies of SDLT planning for UK taxpayers.

Advanced Insights into SDLT for 2024: Buy-to-Let and Second Homes, Non-UK Residents, and Refund Provisions

In the dynamic landscape of UK real estate taxation, several specific scenarios impact SDLT liabilities. This second part of our comprehensive guide delves into the intricacies of buy-to-let investments, SDLT implications for non-UK residents, and the refund provisions for those who find themselves temporarily holding two properties.

Buy-to-Let and Second Home Stamp Duty

The UK's property market is lucrative for investors, including those interested in buy-to-let properties and individuals purchasing second homes. Since April 2016, these purchases have attracted an additional SDLT surcharge of 3% on each band, significantly affecting the tax calculation for investors. This surcharge applies irrespective of the property's value, emphasizing the need for potential buyers to factor this into their investment calculations.

For example, purchasing an additional residential property worth £300,000 would entail an SDLT of £14,000, considering the 3% surcharge across the board. This is a critical consideration for investors looking at the UK property market, especially in strategic investment locations.

Non-UK Resident SDLT Surcharge

The UK government has introduced a surcharge for non-UK residents purchasing residential property in England and Northern Ireland. This measure aims to cool off the overheating property market, ensuring that homes are available for UK residents. Non-UK residents are defined by their physical presence in the country, with the threshold set at spending fewer than 183 days in the UK in the 12 months preceding the purchase.

This 2% surcharge applies on top of existing SDLT rates, including the 3% surcharge for additional properties. It underscores the government's intent to regulate the housing market and ensure fairness in property ownership. Non-residents need to carefully consider this surcharge, as it significantly impacts the total cost of acquiring property in the UK.

Refunds for Buyers Replacing Their Main Residence

A notable aspect of the SDLT system is the provision for refunds. Buyers who purchase a new main residence before selling their previous one are initially subject to the 3% higher rates surcharge for owning two properties. However, if the previous main residence is sold within 36 months, the buyer can claim a refund for the extra 3% SDLT paid.

This refund mechanism acknowledges the practicalities of the housing market, where timing mismatches can occur. It provides a financial reprieve for those who might find themselves temporarily owning two properties during a transition period.

Temporary SDLT Threshold Increases

In response to market conditions, the UK government has occasionally adjusted SDLT thresholds to stimulate the property market. Notably, the threshold for SDLT payment was temporarily increased, offering significant savings to homebuyers. However, these changes are subject to legislative timelines, and buyers should be aware of the current thresholds and rates at the time of purchase.

As of now, these temporary adjustments are set to revert on 31 March 2025, marking a return to the standard SDLT thresholds. This creates a potential planning point for prospective buyers, highlighting the importance of timing in property transactions.

Understanding these detailed components of the SDLT system in 2024 is crucial for anyone involved in the UK real estate market. Whether you're a first-time buyer, an investor, or a non-UK resident, being informed helps navigate the complexities of property taxation effectively.

Stamp Duty Land Tax Rates for Shared Ownership Property in the UK

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) for shared ownership property in the UK involves nuanced calculations and varies depending on several factors, including whether a buyer opts for a market value election or decides to pay in stages based on their share of the property.

Market Value Election

When opting for a market value election, SDLT is calculated on the total market value of the property at the time of the first sale, regardless of the share being purchased. This means if a buyer acquires a 50% share in a property, they will still pay SDLT based on the property's full market value. This approach simplifies future transactions, as no additional SDLT is payable if the buyer acquires further shares in the property, even when obtaining the freehold or reaching 100% ownership. It provides clarity on the total SDLT due from the outset, albeit potentially higher initial costs if the property's full value is substantial.

Paying in Stages

Alternatively, buyers can choose to pay SDLT in stages, which initially bases the SDLT on the premium paid for the lease's grant and the net present value of the rent over the lease term. This method can result in lower initial SDLT costs, particularly if the premium and rent are below SDLT thresholds. However, it may lead to additional SDLT liabilities if the buyer increases their share in the property (known as staircasing) beyond 80%. At this point, the transactions are considered linked, and SDLT is recalculated on the cumulative amount paid for the property shares​​.

Considerations for Shared Ownership Buyers

Deciding between a market value election and paying SDLT in stages requires careful consideration of one's circumstances, future intentions regarding the property, and the potential financial implications of each option. Buyers should also be mindful of specific thresholds and reliefs, such as first-time buyer's relief, which may influence their decision. Consulting with a specialist shared ownership conveyancer can provide valuable insights into the implications of these choices.

SDLT on Resale and Staircasing

When it comes to resale properties or staircasing, the SDLT implications can differ. For resale shared ownership properties, SDLT is based on the price paid for the share being purchased without considering the rent payable for the remaining share. If the original buyer opted for a market value election, future owners can benefit from no SDLT liability on further staircasing transactions.

In summary, navigating SDLT for shared ownership properties in the UK can be complex, and the best approach depends on individual financial situations, long-term plans, and the specific details of the shared ownership scheme. Buyers are encouraged to seek professional advice to understand fully the SDLT implications of their purchase and make informed decisions tailored to their circumstances.

Reliefs and Exemptions for Stamp Duty Land Tax in the UK

Understanding SDLT Reliefs and Exemptions

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) is a tax paid when you buy houses, flats and other land and buildings over a certain price in England and Northern Ireland. However, there are certain situations where you may be eligible for reliefs or exemptions, which can reduce the amount of tax you pay.

In 2024, understanding the various reliefs and exemptions available for Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) in the UK can significantly benefit those engaging in property transactions. These reliefs are designed to reduce the tax burden in specific circumstances, ranging from first-time buyers to large-scale property developers.

Reliefs and Exemptions Overview

For First-time Buyers

First-time buyers enjoy a special relief that exempts them from SDLT on properties up to a certain value, substantially reducing the cost of buying their first home. This relief applies if you and anyone else you're buying with are purchasing your first home.

Multiple Dwellings Relief

This relief is applicable when you buy more than one dwelling in a single transaction or linked transactions. It allows for a reduced rate of SDLT by averaging the cost per dwelling. This is particularly beneficial for investors purchasing multiple properties at once.

Corporate Reliefs

Companies involved in property development or investment can benefit from specific reliefs. For instance, a company buying property from another company within the same group can apply for Group Relief, avoiding SDLT on such transactions under certain conditions.


Properties purchased for charitable purposes can receive relief from SDLT, provided they meet specific criteria, including the property's use for the charity's objectives.

Social Housing Providers

Registered providers of social housing may also be eligible for SDLT relief, supporting the provision of affordable housing.

Employer-related Purchases

If an employer buys a property as part of an employee's relocation package, the transaction can be exempt from SDLT, underlining the support for mobility in the workforce.

Compulsory Purchase Orders

Local authorities or developers making compulsory purchases can apply for relief, encouraging the development and regeneration of areas.

Special Considerations

  • Exemptions: Certain transactions are entirely exempt from SDLT, such as property transfers due to divorce or dissolution of a civil partnership, properties left in a will, and purchases of low-value properties or leases.

  • Claiming Relief: To benefit from any SDLT relief, you must complete an SDLT return, even if no tax is due, explicitly claiming the relief.

  • Time-sensitive Claims: Some reliefs, like the Multiple Dwellings Relief, require careful timing and specific conditions to be met for eligibility.

Understanding these reliefs and exemptions requires careful consideration of the transaction details and often consultation with a tax professional or conveyancer. The UK government's official website provides a comprehensive overview of SDLT reliefs and exemptions, ensuring that individuals and companies can navigate their tax obligations effectively​​​.

For those involved in property transactions in 2024, being aware of these opportunities for SDLT relief can lead to significant savings and support a wide range of housing, development, and investment strategies.

Formula to Create the Payable Stamp Duty Land Tax in the UK

Formula to Create the Payable Stamp Duty Land Tax in the UK

Calculating Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) in the UK for 2024 involves understanding the different scenarios under which the tax is applied. SDLT is a tax on transactions involving the purchase of property or land over a certain value in England and Northern Ireland. The tax rates and the way it's calculated can vary depending on several factors, including the price of the property, whether it's your first home, and if you're buying additional properties.

Standard Calculation for Single Residential Properties

For a single residential property, the SDLT rate you pay is based on the purchase price of the property. The rates are structured so that different portions of the price fall into specific tax bands, each with its rate. As of the mini budget announced on 23rd September 2022, the SDLT rates are structured as follows for properties that will remain the sole residential property of the owner:

  • Up to £250,000: 0%

  • £250,001 to £925,000: 5% on the portion within this band

  • £925,001 to £1.5 million: 10% on the portion within this band

  • Above £1.5 million: 12% on the portion above this threshold

For example, if you buy a house for £295,000, the first £250,000 would attract 0% tax, and the remaining £45,000 would be taxed at 5%, resulting in an SDLT of £2,250.

First-time Buyers

First-time buyers enjoy a relief that increases the threshold for SDLT to £425,000, meaning they pay no SDLT up to this amount. For properties priced between £425,001 and £625,000, first-time buyers will pay 5% SDLT on the portion above £425,000 but below £625,000. Properties priced over £625,000 do not qualify for this relief, and standard rates apply.

Additional Properties

If you're purchasing an additional residential property, such as a second home or a buy-to-let property, a higher rate of SDLT applies. This is generally 3% above the standard rates for each band.

Non-UK Residents

Non-UK residents buying residential property in England or Northern Ireland are subject to a 2% surcharge on top of the standard or higher rates. This is determined by whether the buyer has spent at least 183 days in the UK in the 12 months preceding the purchase.

Calculating SDLT for Leaseholds and Other Special Circumstances

For new leasehold sales, SDLT is calculated on both the purchase price of the lease (the 'lease premium') and the net present value of the rent payable over the term of the lease. If the net present value exceeds the SDLT threshold of £250,000, a 1% tax applies to the portion over this amount.

SDLT calculations can become quite complex, especially in unique scenarios or for specific exemptions and reliefs available. For precise calculations, it's advisable to use the SDLT calculator provided by the UK government or consult with a property lawyer or accountant

Stamp Duty Land Tax Calculator 2024

How to Pay Stamp Duty Land Tax in the UK

Purchasing a property in the UK often involves paying Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT). This tax applies to both residential and non-residential properties and land over a certain price. Here's a comprehensive guide on how to pay your Stamp Duty Land Tax in the UK.

Understanding Stamp Duty Land Tax

Stamp Duty Land Tax is a tax paid when you buy houses, flats, and other land and buildings over a certain price in England and Northern Ireland. The tax is different if the property or land is in Scotland or Wales. You pay the tax when you buy a freehold property, buy a new or existing leasehold, buy a property through a shared ownership scheme, or are transferred land or property in exchange for payment.

When to Pay

Payments are due within 14 days of the 'effective' transaction date. This is usually the date the transaction is completed, but it can also be the date the purchaser is entitled to take possession of the property, the first rent payment is due, or of substantial completion — when at least 90% of the payment (or other exchange) is made. If the deadline is on a weekend or bank holiday, make sure your payment reaches HMRC by the end of the previous working day. If you do not pay by the deadline, you may need to pay a penalty, interest, or both.

What You Need

You need your 11-character unique transaction reference number. This reference will always be made up of 9 numbers and 2 characters (for example, 123456789MC). You can find this on your paper return or on your electronic SDLT5 certificate. If you use an incorrect reference number, there will be a delay in the payment being allocated correctly, and you will receive a payment reminder.

Paying Online

You can pay by approving a payment through your online bank account by selecting the 'pay by bank account' option. You will be directed to sign in to your online or mobile banking account to approve your payment. The payment is usually instant but can sometimes take up to 2 hours to show in your account. Alternatively, you can make a full payment online using a debit or corporate credit card. There is a non-refundable fee if you use a corporate credit or debit card. You cannot pay by personal credit card.

Paying by Bank Transfer

If you pay by CHAPS (Clearing House Automated Payment System) or Faster Payments, you can submit your payment on the same or next day. If you pay by Bacs (Bankers Automated Clearing System), allow 3 working days for the payment to reach HMRC. You should make separate payments for each unique transaction reference. If you want to make a single payment to cover many transactions, send an online CHAPS enquiry form.

Account details to use if your account is in the UK

Use the following details to make a payment if your account is in the UK:

Sort code — 08 32 10

Account number — 12001020

Account name — HMRC Shipley

Account details to use if your account is overseas

Use the following details to make a payment if your account is overseas:

Account number (IBAN) — GB03 BARC 2011 4783 9776 92

Bank identifier code (BIC) — BARCGB22

Account name — HMRC Shipley

Bank Address

Barclays Bank Plc

1 Churchill Place


United Kingdom

E14 5HP

Paying by Cheque

Allow 3 working days for your payment to reach HMRC. Make your cheque payable to 'HM Revenue and Customs only' and write your reference number on the back. Do not fold the cheque or attach it to other papers. If you're sending a cheque for more than one unique transaction reference, you should send a list of all the references against each payment amount. You can include a letter to ask for a receipt.

If you filed a paper return, you have to complete the payslip and send this with your cheque to:

BT Stamp Duty Land Tax

HM Revenue and Customs


If you filed an electronic return, you should send your cheque (with a payslip or quoting the unique transaction reference) to:

HM Revenue and Customs



Paying your Stamp Duty Land Tax is a crucial part of the property buying process in the UK. It's essential to understand the process, deadlines, and payment methods to avoid penalties and ensure a smooth transaction. If you have a solicitor, agent, or conveyancer, they'll usually file your return and pay the tax on your behalf on the day of completion. They'll then add the tax to their fees. If they do not do this for you, you can file a return and pay the tax yourself.

Forms Used to Pay the Stamp Duty Land Tax in the UK

SDLT1 Form

The SDLT1 form is the main form used to pay SDLT. This form is used to provide details about the property or lease, the transaction, and the buyer and seller. It's also where you can claim any tax reliefs you're eligible for. This form must be completed and submitted to HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) within 14 days of the effective date of the transaction, usually the completion date.

SDLT Additional Forms

In some cases, additional forms may be required along with the SDLT1 form. These include:

  • SDLT2: This form is used when more than one buyer or seller is involved in the transaction.

  • SDLT3: This form is used when the transaction involves more than one property.

  • SDLT4: This form is used when the transaction involves a lease.

Online Submission

In most cases, the SDLT forms can be completed and submitted online. This is the quickest and easiest way to pay your SDLT and ensures that HMRC receives your payment and forms promptly. If you're using a solicitor, agent, or conveyancer, they'll usually file your return and pay the tax on your behalf on the day of completion and add the tax to their fees.

Understanding which forms are used to pay SDLT is crucial when purchasing a property in the UK. These forms ensure that the correct amount of tax is paid and that any eligible reliefs are claimed. It's always advisable to seek professional advice when dealing with SDLT to ensure that the forms are completed correctly and submitted on time.

How to Complete Your Stamp Duty Land Tax SDLT1 Return

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) is a tax on property or land bought in England and Northern Ireland. The SDLT1 form is used to notify HMRC about a land transaction for the purpose of paying this tax. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to complete your SDLT1 return.

Preparing to Fill the Form

The SDLT1 return is read by an electronic scanner, so you need to ensure that you:

  • Use the official HMRC print of the form

  • Write inside the boxes in black ink

  • Use capitals for each letter, figure, or symbol

  • Leave a space between words

  • Mark 'X' in the appropriate box where given a choice

  • Do not use correction fluid if you make a mistake, instead, make the correction clearly or use a new form

  • Do not strike through or write 'not applicable in any of the boxes

  • Leave a box blank if a question does not apply unless you're told to insert '0'

  • Do not use symbols, for example, £, $, # or /

Common Reasons for Rejection

Returns are often rejected because the following questions have not been completed:

  • 4 — Effective date of transaction

  • 28 — Address or situation of land

  • 29 — Local authority number

  • 54 — Purchaser 1, surname or company name

  • 56 — Purchaser 1, address

  • 73 — Declaration

The Transaction

You must answer questions about the type of property, description of the transaction, interest transferred or created, effective date of transaction, any restrictions, covenants or conditions affecting the value of the interest transferred or granted, and date of contract or conclusion of missives.

The Tax Calculation

You will need to provide information about whether you are claiming relief, the total consideration in money or money's worth, including any VAT actually payable for the transaction notified, and the form of consideration. You will also need to state if this transaction is linked to any others and calculate the total amount of tax due for the transaction.

The Land (Including Buildings)

If more than one piece of land is being sold, you will need to provide information about the number of properties included, whether you want a certificate for each property, the address or situation of the land, local authority number, title number, and if agricultural or development land, the area.

The Vendor

You must provide information about the number of vendors. If there are more than two vendors, you must complete a supplementary form SDLT2 for each additional vendor not entered on the SDLT1.

Remember, it's important to complete the form accurately to avoid any delays or rejections. If you need further guidance, refer to the SDLT manual available on the GOV.UK website.

How a Personal Tax Accountant Can Help You with Stamp Duty Land Tax

How a Personal Tax Accountant Can Help You with Stamp Duty Land Tax

Navigating the complexities of the UK's Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) can be a daunting task, especially for those unfamiliar with the intricacies of tax law. This is where a personal tax accountant can step in, offering their expertise and guidance to ensure you meet your obligations while also taking advantage of any reliefs or exemptions you may be entitled to.

Understanding Stamp Duty Land Tax

SDLT is a tax on the purchase of properties and land in England and Northern Ireland. The amount of tax you pay depends on the price of the property, whether it's residential or non-residential, and whether it's your first home or an additional property. There are also various reliefs and exemptions available that can reduce the amount of tax you pay.

Expert Guidance on SDLT

A personal tax accountant can provide expert advice on SDLT, helping you understand how much tax you'll need to pay when purchasing a property. They can explain the different rates and thresholds, and how these apply to your specific situation. They can also help you understand the implications of buying a property as a first-time buyer, buying an additional property, or buying a non-residential property.

Claiming Reliefs and Exemptions

There are several reliefs and exemptions available that can reduce the amount of SDLT you need to pay. However, understanding these reliefs and exemptions and knowing whether you're eligible for them can be complex. A personal tax accountant can guide you through this process, helping you identify any reliefs or exemptions you're entitled to and assisting you in claiming them.

Filing SDLT Returns

When you buy a property, you'll need to file an SDLT return and pay any tax due within 14 days of completion. This can be a complex process, especially if you're claiming any reliefs or exemptions. A personal tax accountant can help you complete and file your SDLT return, ensuring it's done correctly and on time to avoid any penalties.

Planning for Future Property Purchases

If you're planning to buy more properties in the future, a personal tax accountant can help you plan for these purchases and the associated SDLT. They can advise you on the best time to buy to minimise your tax liability, and how to structure your purchases to take advantage of any available reliefs or exemptions.

Dealing with HMRC

Dealing with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) can be daunting, especially if there are any issues or disputes over your SDLT. A personal tax accountant can act as your representative, dealing with HMRC on your behalf and helping to resolve any issues quickly and efficiently.

A personal tax accountant can provide invaluable assistance when it comes to dealing with SDLT. Their expertise and guidance can help you navigate the complexities of the tax system, ensuring you meet your obligations while also taking advantage of any reliefs or exemptions you're entitled to. Whether you're buying your first home, purchasing an additional property, or investing in non-residential property, a personal tax accountant can make the process smoother and less stressful.

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