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Updates on the Inheritance Tax and Probate, in the Spring Budget 2024

The Spring Budget 2024, announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Jeremy Hunt, introduces significant updates and changes to the UK's tax landscape, with particular focus on inheritance tax (IHT). Understanding these changes is crucial for taxpayers, estate planners, and financial advisors alike.

Updates on the Inheritance Tax and Probate, in the Spring Budget 2024

Inheritance Tax Thresholds and Rates

As of the Spring Budget 2024, the inheritance tax threshold remains unchanged at £325,000 per individual, with the tax rate for estates exceeding this amount set at 40%. This rate and threshold have been consistent, but the nuances of the tax, including reliefs and exemptions, see modifications that could affect estate planning strategies.

Agricultural and Woodlands Relief Changes

A noteworthy change announced pertains to Agricultural Property Relief (APR) and Woodlands Relief. Legislation to be included in the Spring Finance Bill 2024 will narrow the scope of these reliefs to property located within the UK, effective from 6 April 2024. Furthermore, from 6 April 2025, APR will extend to environmental land management, emphasizing the government's focus on sustainable farming and environmental stewardship.

This change aligns with the post-Brexit adjustment in the UK's tax policy, as property in the EEA, Channel Islands, and Isle of Man will now be treated the same as other property located outside the UK. This amendment highlights a strategic shift towards more localized tax reliefs and is aimed at supporting UK-based agricultural and woodland properties​​.

Residence-Based Regime for Inheritance Tax

A significant reform introduced in the Spring Budget 2024 is the proposed move towards a residence-based regime for inheritance tax, set to take effect no earlier than 6 April 2025. This shift means that, regardless of domicile status, individuals who have been UK residents for 10 or more years will be liable for IHT on their worldwide assets. Conversely, liability for IHT on worldwide assets will only cease after 10 years of non-residency.

This update is a departure from the current domicile-based system and aims to simplify the tax implications for non-doms while ensuring that long-term residents contribute to the UK's tax system on a more equitable basis. The detailed impact of this change will depend on further consultation and potential adjustments by future governments.

Payment of Inheritance Tax and Probate Changes

Another practical change introduced in the budget is the modification of the process for paying inheritance tax. Starting from 1 April 2024, personal representatives of estates will no longer be required to have sought commercial loans to pay IHT before applying to obtain a ‘grant on credit’ from HMRC. This adjustment is designed to streamline the probate process, making it more efficient for executors to settle estates.

The Spring Budget 2024 brings forth crucial updates to the inheritance tax regime, affecting individuals and estates across the UK. From the introduction of a residence-based IHT system to changes in agricultural and woodland reliefs, these amendments highlight the government's approach towards a more localized and environmentally conscious tax policy. As these changes will come into effect in the coming years, it's essential for taxpayers and advisors to stay informed and consider how these updates might influence estate planning and tax strategies.

Detailed Analysis of Inheritance Tax Changes and Their Impact

The Spring Budget 2024 marks a significant pivot in the UK's approach to taxation, particularly concerning inheritance tax (IHT). This section delves into the nuances of these changes, evaluating their potential impact on UK residents and non-domiciliaries (non-doms).

Residence-Based Regime and Non-Domiciliaries

The shift towards a residence-based regime represents a fundamental alteration of the IHT landscape. Under the new system, the distinction between domiciled and non-domiciled individuals will blur, with tax implications based more heavily on residence status than on domicile. For individuals resident in the UK for at least 10 years, worldwide assets will become subject to IHT, a change that necessitates careful planning for those with international assets.

This reform intends to ensure that long-term UK residents contribute their fair share to public finances, regardless of their domicile status. The changes are poised to bring more clarity and fairness to the system, although they will undoubtedly require individuals to reassess their estate planning strategies.

Implications for Trusts and Excluded Property

A key area of focus under the new regime is the treatment of trusts and excluded property. Until now, non-domiciled individuals could establish trusts with non-UK assets that were considered excluded property for IHT purposes, thus shielding these assets from UK IHT. However, with the proposed changes, foreign assets held in trusts will become taxable if the settlor has been a UK resident for 10 years or has been taxable on worldwide assets and resident at some point during the last 10 years.

This development underscores the importance of proactive estate planning, particularly for non-doms who may need to consider establishing trusts before the 6 April 2025 deadline to take advantage of the current rules. Post-2025, the landscape for trusts and estate planning will be markedly different, with fewer opportunities to avoid IHT on worldwide assets.

Agricultural Property Relief (APR) and Woodlands Relief

The modifications to APR and Woodlands Relief signal the government's intent to support UK agriculture and environmental goals. By restricting these reliefs to UK property, the government aims to encourage investment and stewardship of the UK's agricultural and woodland resources. Extending APR to environmental land management from April 2025 also aligns with broader environmental objectives, offering tax incentives for practices that contribute to sustainability and biodiversity.

For farm businesses and landowners, these changes highlight the need to adapt and potentially reevaluate land use strategies. The tax benefits of engaging in environmental land management schemes could offer new avenues for tax-efficient estate planning, leveraging the extended scope of APR​​.

Streamlining the Probate Process

The simplification of the process for paying IHT is a welcome change for many. By eliminating the need for personal representatives to seek commercial loans before obtaining a grant on credit from HMRC, the government aims to reduce the administrative burden and financial strain on estates. This modification should expedite the probate process, allowing for a smoother and quicker resolution for bereaved families.

Looking Forward

The inheritance tax changes introduced in the Spring Budget 2024 are poised to have a profound effect on estate planning in the UK. The move towards a residence-based regime, in particular, will require individuals, especially non-doms with substantial overseas assets, to reassess their estate planning and consider taking action before the rules change in 2025.

Equally, the amendments to APR and Woodlands Relief, along with the streamlining of the probate process, reflect a broader shift towards a more localized, environmentally conscious, and efficient tax system. As these changes are set to unfold, staying informed and seeking professional advice will be key to navigating the evolving landscape of UK inheritance tax.

Strategic Planning and Opportunities Following Inheritance Tax Changes

The Spring Budget 2024's inheritance tax (IHT) changes offer a mix of challenges and opportunities for UK taxpayers. As we navigate the transition to a residence-based regime and adapt to the adjustments in reliefs, proactive planning becomes imperative. This final section explores the strategic considerations and opportunities arising from the new IHT landscape, ensuring taxpayers can effectively manage their estate planning and taxation affairs.

Adapting to the Residence-Based IHT Regime

The transition to a residence-based IHT regime necessitates a comprehensive review of one's estate planning strategy, especially for non-domiciled individuals and those with significant overseas assets. Taxpayers should consider the following strategies:

  • Pre-2025 Trust Planning: For non-doms, establishing trusts with non-UK assets before the 6 April 2025 cut-off can provide a window to safeguard assets from the reach of UK IHT under the new rules. This requires immediate action to take advantage of the existing excluded property regime.

  • Residence Planning: Individuals close to the 10-year UK residence mark may evaluate their residency status and consider the implications of becoming deemed domiciled under the new rules. Strategic periods of non-residency may mitigate exposure to IHT on worldwide assets.

Leveraging Changes in Agricultural and Woodlands Relief

The refinement of APR and Woodlands Relief to focus on UK property and the extension to environmental land management presents several planning opportunities:

  • Investment in UK Agricultural and Woodland Property: With reliefs now restricted to UK property, there's an added incentive for investment in domestic agricultural and woodland assets. This move encourages the stewardship of the UK's natural resources and offers estate planning advantages.

  • Environmental Land Management Schemes: The extension of APR to land under environmental agreements from April 2025 can serve as a catalyst for estate owners to explore engagement in these schemes. Besides contributing to environmental goals, such involvement can provide significant estate planning benefits.

Streamlined Probate Process

The simplification of the IHT payment and probate process is a relief for estate executors and beneficiaries. This change underscores the importance of keeping estate documentation and planning up to date to facilitate a smooth and efficient probate process.

Key Takeaways for Estate Planning

  • Early Consultation with Advisors: Given the complexity and the evolving nature of the IHT landscape, engaging with tax and legal advisors early can provide tailored strategies that align with the new rules and personal circumstances.

  • Review and Update Wills: The impending changes underscore the need for regular reviews and updates to wills and estate plans to ensure they remain efficient and effective under the new tax regime.

  • Consider Lifetime Gifts: Exploring opportunities for lifetime gifting within the annual exemption limits or as part of normal expenditure out of income can be an effective way to mitigate IHT liability.

  • Utilize Available Reliefs: Despite changes, reliefs such as Business Property Relief (BPR) remain valuable tools for estate planning. Reviewing asset portfolios to identify opportunities to leverage these reliefs can reduce IHT exposure.

The Spring Budget 2024 heralds a period of significant change in the UK's IHT regime, with far-reaching implications for estate planning. The move to a residence-based system, adjustments to key reliefs, and the streamlining of the probate process require taxpayers to revisit and potentially revise their estate planning strategies. By understanding these changes and taking proactive steps, individuals can navigate the evolving tax landscape, ensuring their estate planning remains both compliant and efficient. This strategic approach will enable taxpayers to optimize their estate's tax position while contributing to the UK's broader environmental and economic goals.

The Benefits of Hiring a Professional Inheritance Tax Accountant for Inheritance Tax Management

Hiring a professional inheritance tax accountant is a strategic decision for anyone navigating the complexities of inheritance tax (IHT) management in the UK. The Spring Budget 2024 introduced significant changes to the IHT regime, underscoring the importance of expert guidance. This article delves into the myriad benefits of engaging with a professional IHT accountant, from optimizing tax efficiency to ensuring compliance with evolving tax laws.

1. Expert Understanding of Tax Legislation

The UK's tax laws, especially concerning IHT, are notoriously complex and subject to frequent changes. Professional accountants specialize in staying abreast of current legislation, including the latest amendments announced in the Spring Budget 2024. Their expertise can be invaluable in navigating the nuances of the IHT regime, ensuring that all available reliefs and exemptions are utilized, thereby minimizing the tax burden on estates.

2. Tailored Estate Planning Strategies

A professional IHT accountant offers more than just tax computation; they provide tailored advice to fit the unique circumstances of each estate. They can devise strategies that encompass not just IHT but also capital gains tax and other potential tax liabilities, ensuring a holistic approach to estate planning. This may include advice on gifting, setting up trusts, or restructuring assets to maximize tax efficiency.

3. Assistance with Compliance and Filings

Compliance with HMRC's requirements is a critical aspect of IHT management. An IHT accountant can ensure that all necessary filings are accurate and submitted on time, avoiding penalties for late or incorrect submissions. They can also handle communications with HMRC on behalf of the estate, providing a stress-free experience for executors or administrators.

4. Mitigating Risks and Avoiding Pitfalls

The financial and legal risks associated with IHT planning can be significant. An accountant with specialized knowledge in IHT can identify potential pitfalls and suggest measures to mitigate risks. This might involve advising on the timing of gifts, the use of trusts, or the implications of residency and domicile status on IHT liabilities.

5. Maximizing Reliefs and Exemptions

The UK's IHT framework includes various reliefs and exemptions that can significantly reduce tax liabilities if applied correctly. Accountants can offer advice on making full use of allowances such as the nil-rate band, residence nil-rate band, and reliefs for business and agricultural property. Their insight can be particularly valuable following the Spring Budget 2024 changes, helping to navigate the transition to a residence-based IHT regime.

6. Support for Non-Domiciled Individuals

For non-domiciled individuals, the UK's IHT regime presents additional complexity, especially with the shift towards a residence-based system announced in the Spring Budget 2024. Professional accountants can provide crucial guidance on how these changes affect non-doms and advise on structuring affairs to mitigate IHT exposure.

7. Future-Proofing Estate Plans

The landscape of tax legislation is ever-evolving, and what may be an optimal strategy today could become less so in the future. An experienced IHT accountant can help future-proof estate plans by anticipating potential changes in legislation and adapting strategies accordingly. This proactive approach ensures that estates remain as tax-efficient as possible in the long term.

8. Reducing Administrative Burdens

Managing an estate, particularly in the context of IHT, can be a time-consuming and complex process. Hiring an accountant can significantly reduce the administrative burden on executors, freeing them to focus on other aspects of estate administration. This includes the valuation of assets, calculating tax liabilities, and distributing assets to beneficiaries.

9. Peace of Mind

Perhaps one of the most significant benefits of hiring a professional IHT accountant is the peace of mind it brings. Knowing that an expert is navigating the intricacies of IHT laws and regulations can alleviate the stress and anxiety often associated with estate planning and IHT management. This is invaluable for executors and beneficiaries alike.

10. Cost Savings in the Long Run

While hiring a professional accountant represents an upfront cost, the potential savings in terms of minimized tax liabilities and avoided penalties can be substantial. A well-planned estate, structured with the help of a professional, can result in significant financial benefits for the beneficiaries, far outweighing the initial investment in professional advice.

The complexities of the UK's IHT regime, particularly in the wake of changes announced in the Spring Budget 2024, make the expertise of a professional inheritance tax accountant more valuable than ever. From ensuring compliance with current laws to optimizing estate planning strategies, the benefits of hiring a professional are clear. Whether it's minimizing tax liabilities, navigating the intricacies of non-dom status, or simply providing peace of mind, the role of an IHT accountant is integral to effective inheritance tax management in the UK.


Q1: What is the inheritance tax (IHT) threshold for the 2024/25 tax year in the UK?

A: The inheritance tax threshold for the 2024/25 tax year remains unchanged at £325,000 per individual.

Q2: Will the rate of IHT change in the Spring Budget 2024?

A: No, the rate of inheritance tax remains at 40% for estates above the threshold.

Q3: How does the Spring Budget 2024 affect non-UK domiciliaries regarding IHT?

A: The Budget introduces a move towards a residence-based regime for IHT, affecting individuals resident in the UK for 10 years or more with worldwide asset taxation changes starting no earlier than 6 April 2025.

Q4: Are there any changes to trusts and how they are taxed under the new IHT rules?

A: Yes, from 6 April 2025, foreign assets held in trusts will be taxable under the new rules if the settlor has been a UK resident for 10 years or has been taxable on worldwide assets and resident at some point during the last 10 years.

Q5: Can non-domiciled individuals still set up an excluded property trust before the changes take effect?

A: Yes, non-domiciled individuals can set up an excluded property (IHT exempt) trust up until 6 April 2025, before the new rules come into effect.

Q6: How are Agricultural Property Relief (APR) and Woodlands Relief changing?

A: From 6 April 2024, the scope of APR and Woodlands Relief will be restricted to UK property only, with APR extending to environmental land management from April 2025.

Q7: What does the move to a residence-based IHT regime mean for existing non-doms?

A: Existing non-doms will face IHT on worldwide assets once they have been resident in the UK for more than 10 years, with the changes taking effect no earlier than April 2025.

Q8: Is there a change in how inheritance tax is paid and probate is obtained?

A: Yes, from 1 April 2024, personal representatives can obtain a ‘grant on credit’ from HMRC without needing to secure commercial loans first for IHT payments.

Q9: Will the new IHT rules affect how overseas assets are taxed?

A: Yes, under the new residence-based regime, overseas assets will be subject to UK IHT for residents past the 10-year mark, altering the tax treatment for non-doms.

Q10: Are there any transitional arrangements for non-doms under the new IHT regime?

A: Specific transitional arrangements have not been detailed in the summaries provided, but typically such changes include provisions to smooth the transition for those affected by the new rules.

Q11: How will the Spring Budget 2024 impact inheritance tax planning for UK residents with overseas connections?

A: UK residents with overseas connections may need to reassess their estate planning, particularly in terms of trusts and the taxation of overseas assets under the new residence-based IHT regime.

Q12: What planning opportunities exist for taxpayers in light of the Spring Budget 2024 IHT changes?

A: Taxpayers should consider establishing trusts before April 2025, reviewing residence status, and exploring investments in UK agricultural and woodland property to leverage available reliefs.

Q13: Will the threshold for IHT change for married couples and civil partners?

A: The IHT threshold for married couples and civil partners can still be combined, offering up to £650,000 before IHT applies, unchanged by the Spring Budget 2024.

Q14: Are there any updates on the treatment of pensions and IHT?

A: The Spring Budget 2024 documents did not specify changes directly affecting the treatment of pensions and IHT, focusing more on domicile and residence changes for IHT liability.

Q15: How will environmental land management schemes affect APR after the Spring Budget 2024?

A: Land managed under environmental agreements will qualify for APR from April 2025, encouraging sustainable land management practices.

Q16: Will the Spring Budget 2024 changes to IHT affect lifetime gifts?

A: The changes do not directly alter the rules for lifetime gifts, but the overall estate planning strategy, including gifting, may need reassessment in light of the broader IHT regime changes.

Q17: Are there any new exemptions or reliefs introduced in the Spring Budget 2024 related to IHT?

A: The Budget primarily focused on the transition to a residence-based IHT regime and adjustments to APR and Woodlands Relief, without introducing new exemptions or reliefs.

Q18: How does theSpring Budget 2024 affect gifts out of income?

A: The specific rules for gifts out of income are not directly affected by the Spring Budget 2024; however, making use of such gifts remains an important part of IHT planning, allowing for tax-efficient wealth transfer without altering the existing regime.

Q19: What advice is there for individuals nearing the 10-year UK residency mark under the new IHT rules?

A: Individuals nearing the 10-year residency mark should consider their future residency plans and estate planning strategy, potentially seeking advice on whether changes to their status or estate structure could mitigate future IHT liabilities.

Q20: Are there specific steps that should be taken now before the new IHT rules come into effect in April 2025?

A: Before the new rules take effect, individuals may wish to establish trusts with non-UK assets, review their residency status and estate planning strategy, and consider making lifetime gifts within the current exemptions and reliefs to optimize their estate's IHT position.

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